Homo Deus

Yuval Noah Harari

Homo Deus



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The species, Homo sapiens, have lived on earth for millennia, and, today, in the 21st century, humankind is ready to take the next evolutionary step. According to science, Homo sapiens do not have immortal souls, and have limited free will, yet they have nonetheless always managed to push past any obstacles they have faced. What will become of human beings in the future? According to Harari, all of the pieces are in place for us to keep moving ever closer towards achieving a state akin to that of the gods. In a situation where disease, wars, and economic instability have much less impact than they did in the past, a new kind of humanity is preparing to rise. Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow is an account of the history that has led up to this stage of human evolution, exploring historical events, religious theories, and scientific discoveries, and makes some predictions of what the future may have in store for us.

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Analysis and key concepts


A world without epidemics, poverty, and wars provides the ideal conditions for human transformation


The Anthropocene is the era in which humans dominate everything around them


Emotions are biochemical algorithms that are crucial to a mammal’s survival


The animist world, the theistic world, and the humanist world: three religious approaches that shape our vision of the world


Monotheistic religions hate Darwin's theories because they contradict the existence of the soul


Homo sapiens dominates the world because it sees a reality made up of three levels: objective, subjective, and intersubjective


The modern run-up to power arises from the alliance between scientific progress and economic growth


The humanist religion, in which humans have taken the place of God


Free will is an illusion that has been debunked by science


Each individual has an experiential self and a narrating self


In the world of the future, dominated by algorithms, there will be less and less need for humans


A class of superfluous and unemployable individuals


Using data could help you make the most important decisions




Take-home message

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Many useful tips to:

  • Retrace our steps back through key phases in the history of humanity.
  • Understand how the presence of human beings has brought about important changes on the planet.
  • Analyse some of the future prospects and likely changes that our species, Homo sapiens, will undergo.

Yuval Noah Harari is an expert in medieval and military history, and in 2002, he was awarded a PhD in History at Jesus College, Oxford University. Since 2012, he has been a member of the Young Israeli Academy of Science, and he currently teaches world History and Macro Historical Processes at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He is a two-time winner of the Polonsky Prize for Creativity and Originality, and recipient of the Society for Military History’s Monaco Award for his writing on military history. He has also published several highly successful books.

Publishing house:

Harper Perennial